Toolbox / Glossary


Wondering what we’re on about?

Technical terms, industry-specific jargon, words that could have multiple meanings. They are everywhere!

We want the information we are giving you on this website to be clear.

SO, below is a list of the terms we think might need an explainer. If you come across something that doesn't make sense to you, or you want clarified and you don't see it in here, please email us and we will add it to the list.

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A procedure in which an authoritative body evaluates and gives formal recognition that a certification programme of a Certification Body is in accordance with a given standard. Achieving accreditation gives Certification Bodies the authority to grant certification to a standard.

Accreditation body
Authorises Certification Bodies to certify a product or process according to a specific standard. All Certification Bodies have to be accredited by an authorised Accreditation Body. An Accreditation Body can be the standard required by the country of destination or the standard required by a national government body of the country of production.

Air freight
When goods are sent via aeroplane from a location to the destination. For example, we sometimes use air freight to send bulk goods from China factories to our RUBY head office, to then be quality checked and dispatched to stores.

Alkylphenol (APs) including nonylphenol, octylphenol and ethoxylates (APEs)
APs and APEs are a group of chemicals used in the manufacturing of detergents, cleaners and other products. They are used in the textile industry as detergents as scouring, coating or waterproofing agents, in printing pastes and adhesives, and in dyeing. APEOs and other versions of these chemicals are slow to biodegrade, and accumulate in the environment. When they do biodegrade, their by-products have a high toxicity rate. These chemicals end up in our waterways, aquatic life and foodstreams, and have been linked with hormone disruption in both animals, fish and humans. For these reasons, these chemicals are included in our Restricted Substance List.

Animal welfare values
FOUR PAWS research estimates that over two billion animals are used in the global fashion industry every year in the wool, fur, and leather industries alone, many of which suffer poor living conditions, brutal physical mutilation practices and chronic stress. At RUBY we promote the ‘five freedoms’ of animal welfare throughout our supply chain. These ‘five freedoms’ were developed by UK Farm Animal Welfare Council in 1965, and were built into the core of the New Zealand Animal Welfare Act to ensure the protection and treatment of animals are upheld, and they still hold true today:
1. Freedom from Hunger and Thirst (food and water)
2. Freedom from Discomfort (shelter)
3. Freedom from Pain, Injury or Disease (medical care)
4. Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour (exercise)
5. Freedom from Fear and Distress (love and understanding)
This is why it is important for us to source animal fibres from responsible origins that uphold these values.

A formal process that is based on a tested framework, that reviews and scores a facility on its compliance with that framework. Audits performed for RUBY will usually involve compliance around social responsibility standards and environmental stewardship.

Azo dyes
Azo dyes are synthetic and do not occur naturally. They are widely used to treat textiles, leather articles, carpet and some foods as well as being used in cosmetics. They are a type of direct dye, meaning that they colour the fibres directly, which eliminates the need for a mordant (a substance that helps fix a dye to a material). Azo dyes are carcinogenic. They have been linked to health issues like skin and eye irritation due to the fact that they are water-soluble, making them easy for skin to absorb. They are also an environmental concern because of their potential to discharge into local waterways, potentially harming fish and aquatic life. For these reasons, these chemicals are included in our Restricted Substance List.

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Best practice
Commercial or professional procedures that are accepted or prescribed as being the best solution or most effective. At RUBY this means the best available solutions for a product, material or issue that respects the environment, through the use of recycled, renewable or organic resources, or through programmes that seek to enhance the quality of life for workers in the supply chain.

Better practice
We have taken the words ‘best practice’ and redefined this as ‘better practice’ when talking about sustainability at RUBY. We have found that there is no ‘perfect’ solution to every problem we are trying to solve, but we know we can strive for the better alternatives that are available to us.

Bias cut
More commonly garments are cut on the straight grain. Whereas, bias cut pattern pieces are placed at a 45° angle on the grain of the fabric. This allows the fabric to have a little more stretch, and drape nicely on the body. The problem with this way of cutting is it usually creates more fabric wastage, and is challenging to find reduction solutions.

Biodegradability means an organism will break down or decay naturally over time without any special scientific treatment. This method is not to be confused with compostable - not all biodegradable products are compostable. Some examples of biodegradable materials are paper, boxes, some packaging (like our compostable packaging), food scraps and 100% natural fibres such as cotton, silk, wool and linen.

A plastic material created from either a percentage or 100% natural renewable resources, such as plants. Bioplastics are roughly divided into three main groups:
1. Biobased or partly biobased non-biodegradable plastics such as biobased PE, PP, or PET and biobased technical performance polymers such as PTT or TPC-ET.
2. Plastics that are both biobased and biodegradable, such as PLA and PHA or PBS.
3. Plastics that are partly made with petrochemicals, but will biodegrade in soil environments, such as PBAT.14 *bioplastics are used to make biobased melt spinnable fibres.

Fabric that is cut into strips (usually on a 45° angle) to a certain width, for example 22mm or 32mm and used for finishing the edges of a garment, or for creating things like belts and ties. We sometimes include our excess binding strips from production in our Liam off-cut bags that are for sale. This takes the work out of cutting fabric into strips before knitting them together.

Refers to the variety of living species on Earth, including plants, animals, bacteria, fungi and even microorganisms like bacteria that make up our natural world. Each of these species and organisms work together in ecosystems, like an intricate web, to maintain balance and support life. Biodiversity supports everything in nature that we need to survive: food, clean water, medicine, and shelter. While Earth’s biodiversity is so rich that many species have yet to be discovered, many species are being threatened with extinction due to human activities, putting the Earth’s magnificent biodiversity at risk.

Bisphenol-A (BPA)
Is an industrial chemical used in plastics manufacturing and added to many commercial products, including food containers, baby bottles, plastic water bottles, and hygiene products. There are concerns that BPA can leach from the packaging into foods and beverages, and some research suggests that BPA exposure may lead to a number of health problems. We do not use PBA materials in our packaging.

The entirety of an order once complete.

An incidental or secondary product made in the manufacturing of something else. Using by-product materials can reduce the amount of waste that ends up in landfill and oceans, turning waste into new products

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Refer to ‘heavy metals’ for overview. Cadmium is a well-known stabiliser for the manufacturing of polymers like PVC. It can also be used as a coating agent. High levels may build up in the kidneys, causing kidney disease and fragile bones. Cadmium is classified as a carcinogen. For these reasons, this metal is included in our Restricted Substance List.

An environmental not-for-profit organisation working with over 100 brands to protect the world’s ancient ecosystems. Canopy works with global brands to help them gain transparency of their supply chain to ensure that endangered forests are not destroyed to make apparel materials. They help brands to find alternative inputs, create traceability, and engage producers in solutions.

Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Is a colourless gas that has been named as one of the most harmful ‘greenhouse gases’ that is contributing to global warming. We need a small amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to help trap the sun's heat, to help keep the planet warm, but with the increase of fossil fuels being combusted, this is causing more carbon dioxide to be released and is warming the earth's temperature at an alarming rate.

Carbon footprint
A business, or product’s carbon footprint is the measure of how much carbon dioxide they release as part of its activities or products. It includes direct emissions, such as those that result from fossil-fuel combustion in manufacturing, heating, and transportation, as well as emissions required to produce the electricity associated with goods and services consumed. In addition, a business's emissions often include other emissions from greenhouse gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide, or chlorofluorocarbons.

Carbon neutral
A business, or product, can be carbon neutral if the amount of carbon dioxide they emit into the atmosphere is the same as the amount of carbon dioxide they remove from the atmosphere.
A carbon neutral activity is one that has a carbon footprint of zero. When businesses cannot reduce their emissions enough to have a zero carbon footprint, they will often look to ‘offset’ these emissions with other organisations that are drawing down more carbon out of the atmosphere than what they are producing, such as forestry or solar projects. This is known as carbon offsetting, and is one way activities or products can be presented as 'carbon neutral'.

Carding wool
Is the process of brushing the wool fibres to organise and separate them into single fibres. A pair of cards is used to brush the wool between them until the fibres are more or less aligned in the same direction. It creates a continuous web of fibres that can be laid out flat into batting, rolled into rovings, or split into spinning rolls.

Cellulose / Cellulosic
Is a fibrous material of plant origin and the feedstock for all natural and man-made cellulosic fibres. Cellulose fibres can either be developed naturally, such as cotton, flax, hemp, jute, and ramie. Or, they can be man-made such as rayon, viscose or lyocell, which use dissolved wood pulp from trees.

The provision by an independent body of written assurance that the product, service or system in question meets specific requirements.

Certification body
Are organisations accredited to certify products or processing. Certification Bodies can be accredited by a standard required by the country of destination, or the standard required by the national government body of the country of production. Certification Bodies can operate exclusively in its home country or more commonly, in multiple countries.

Officially recognised as possessing certain qualifications or meeting certain standards.

Chain of Custody
Supports a product content claim. It is a system to trace and document the path taken by a product or material, through all stages of the supply chain. Chain of custody helps to keep the integrity of a product intact through the system (such as transaction certificates), and is designed to track the content through the supply chain.

Chemical recycling process
Means chemically or thermochemically processing waste (that currently have no or low value) into new raw materials. An example of this is plastic bottles being chemically recycled and turned into recycled polyester yarn and fabric.

Child Labour
Refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives them of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful.

Chlorinated solvents
Prior to dyeing, fabrics are scoured, sometimes using chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethane (TCE) as well as nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs) - both are considered potentially harmful to human health. Chlorinated solvents are also sometimes used as cleaning agents in dry cleaning. They are slow to break down in water and soil, posing a threat to groundwater aquifers and ecosystems. Some solvents can remain in the environment for decades. For these reasons, these chemicals are included in our Restricted Substance List.

Can be used in the dyeing process as carriers or levelling agents. They are more often used in polyester and polyester blended textiles, rather than natural textiles. They can be toxic by inhalation or skin contact and can accumulate in the body over time affecting the liver, thyroid and central nervous system. For these reasons, these chemicals are included in our Restricted Substance List.

Chlorophenols (CPs)
Can be used in textile dyeing and in leather finishing to prevent mould spots or damage through insects. They are toxic contaminants that tend to accumulate in textile dyeing sludge and pose a threat to the environment through the disposal process. For this reason, these chemicals are included in our Restricted Substance List.

Chromium VI
Refer to ‘heavy metals’ for overview. Chromium is a mineral that is often used to harden steel. From Chromium minerals, chromium salts are created, and these are what are most commonly used in the textile industry for dyeing fabrics or printing. Leather goods are often treated using chromium salts during the tanning process, this is so for 90% of leather production globally. Chromium can cause respiratory problems and rashes, and is classified as a carcinogen. Once Chromium VI is absorbed by the body, these metals can accumulate in the liver or kidney and cause serious health problems. Plus, it is often not disposed of correctly after production, polluting the environment. For these reasons, this metal is included in our Restricted Substance List.

Circular economy
In comparison to the traditional linear model of ‘Take, Make, Consume / Use, Dispose’ which is reliant on virgin natural resources, and is filling up our landfills, a circular economy keeps products and materials in use for longer, designing out waste and pollution, and helps to regenerate natural systems. Through this system, the life cycle of a product is extended and then put back into the economy after use. In practice, it implies reducing waste to a minimum, and keeping products at their highest value for as long as possible. If products and materials are designed for a circular economy they can be productively used again and again, thereby creating further value.

Circular fashion design
Circular fashion design considers the whole life cycle of a garment, and is specifically designed for a circular system from the start of the design process. This is not only about designing out or reducing waste in the production stage, and what materials you choose, but it is also considering from a design perspective how a product will be made, used and ultimately disposed of. Considerations in this design process include the durability of the fabric and design elements, reducing the consumption of materials, making products using singular fibres/ non-blended materials (which can be used for fibre to fibre recycling), ensuring hardware and trims are easily removable (for recycling after use) and can be reused, ease of repair or alteration, and the use of safe dyes and finishes to aid recyclability and/or composting.

Adverb: Circular Economy

Climate Change
Refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns. These shifts may be natural, such as through variations in the solar cycle. But since the 1800s, human activities have been the main driver of climate change, primarily due to burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas.

Closed loop
A closed loop system is where chemicals and water that are used to manufacture products or recycle fabrics, are not released from the facility, ensuring that any toxins or substances are not at risk of polluting the local environment or community. Advances in technology have allowed for water to be purified of all pollutants after a production cycle, to ensure the water input for the next round of production is not compromised.

Code of Conduct (COC)
Is a list of standards and values that a brand upholds in regards to human rights and the treatment of workers. A Code of Conduct is usually sent by brands or retailers to suppliers, contractors or subcontractors to create a written commitment on what they expect their suppliers to uphold. However, a Code of Conduct is not a legally binding document, and can only be used as part of a business-to-business relationship.

Commercially compostable
Commercial compost facilities are able to compost denser natural materials quickly under higher temperatures compared with home composting. Some packaging may be commercially compostable (and therefore not home compostable) because of the density and material, inks and glues which would negatively impact the compost quality, and possibly not break down completely. At RUBY, we partner with a company called Green Gorilla, who collect and compost on a commercial scale. They help us to compost our organic materials such as food scraps, food soiled paper, compostable packaging and sometimes even our small scrappy sampling off-cuts which are made from 100% natural fibres. Here is a link of other available commercial compost facilities within New Zealand.

A useful or valuable thing. A substance or product that can be traded, bought, or sold.

Noun: A mixture of ingredients that is used as plant fertiliser and helps to improve soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties. It is commonly prepared by decomposing plant and food waste, recycling organic materials, and manure. The resulting mixture is rich in plant nutrients and beneficial organisms, such as bacteria, protozoa, nematodes, and fungi. Compost improves soil fertility in gardens, landscaping, horticulture, urban agriculture, and organic farming, reducing dependency on commercial chemical fertilisers.
Verb: To turn organic or natural matter into compost (noun).

Means that something is capable of breaking down into natural elements in a compost environment. The breakdown process usually takes about 90 days. Compostable is defined as anything that undergoes degradation by biological processes during composting to yield CO2, water, inorganic compounds and biomass at a rate consistent with other compostable materials and leaves no visible, distinguishable or toxic residue.

A person who purchases goods and services for personal use.

Cotton bolls
Are the outer fibres that cover the cotton seeds of the cotton plant. The boll is the rounded mature fruit of the cotton plant. It is made up of separate compartments which are called locks, in which cotton seeds and lint grow. These open at harvest time. An average boll will contain nearly 500,000 cotton fibres.

Cotton ginning
Is essentially a two-stage mechanical process for removing debris such as stems, burrs and soil from cotton bolls, and separating the cotton fibres from the seed. See the process .

Cotton lint
Raw cotton after ginning is called lint. These high grade fibres are used to produce yarn and fabrics.

Cotton linter
After the ginning process, small fibres are still attached onto the seed, including seed pieces, dust, and motes- these fibres are termed linters. Linters are often deemed not suitable for producing yarns, so are often disposed of, however, they can be saved from landfill by being used to produce regenerated yarns such as cupro.

Cottonseed oil
Is sold and used as cooking oil. Cottonseed oil comes from the seeds of cotton plants of various species, mainly Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum. These plants are grown for cotton fibres, and animal feed and oil are a by-product of manufacturing cotton fibres.

To make a garment using the necessary sewing skills required.

The act of ‘consuming’ or purchasing of goods.

Referring to traditional methods. For example, polyester using non-renewable petroleum resources was the traditional method before recycled polyester using waste became possible.

Corrective action plan
A method of documenting non-compliance issues, identifying their root causes, and capturing measurable, achievable solutions and realistic deadlines. A corrective action plan may be needed once a social compliance audit has been undertaken.

CMT Manufacturing
Cut, Make, and Trim (CMT) manufacturers cut the fabric, sew the cut pieces into clothing, and finish with adding trims ready to be delivered.

Curb-side recyclable
Curb-side recycling refers to the practice of recycling items by using council bins that are regularly emptied and taken to recycling facilities to be processed through their waste management systems. In New Zealand, materials such as cardboard, paper, glass, aluminium and some plastics are the most commonly recycled. There are variations of plastic, some are easier to recycle (
) and some are more difficult (). Have a look on the bottom or back of the product for this reference number so you can ensure you are disposing of materials correctly.

Cut & sew fabric off-cuts
Left-over fabric from the bulk cutting process.

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Deadstock fabric is known by a few names, for example overstock, surplus fabric, end of line, and remnant. Basically, it's any leftover fabric that won’t be used for its original purpose or order fulfilment. Deadstock is often favoured by smaller brands due to the lower quantities available, and it can save the fabric from possibly ending up in landfill.

Forests cover 31% of the land area on our planet. They help people thrive and survive by, for example, helping purify water and air and providing people with jobs. Many animals also rely on forests for food and their homes. Forests also play a critical role in mitigating climate change, helping to soak up carbon dioxide that could add to the pressures of global warming.
Deforestation, or forest clearance, is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land that is then converted to non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. This is of particular concern when the world’s precious rainforests are cleared for farmland, as they hold most of the world’s biodiversity. For example, United Nations, almost one-third of the world’s farmable land has disappeared in the last four decades. It was also reported that all of the World’s topsoil could become unproductive within 60 years if current rates of loss continue.

A process in the fabric production stage. The yarns are subject to a high degree of abrasion during weaving. To prevent breakage or damage, ‘size’ is added to the warp yarn. The ‘size’ on the fabric makes it stiff and difficult to treat with liquids used in dyeing and finishing. One of the initial steps in wet processing is the elimination of size and water-soluble admixtures, the operation being called desizing. Desizing process is essential to make the fabric suitable for the next process.

Treating some people differently from others. The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people, especially on the grounds of ethnicity, age, sex, or disability.

Dissolving wood pulp
This is the method required to break down wood into pulp, in the making of yarns like viscose. The origin of wood pulp are tree’s such as beech, pine, eucalyptus as well as plants such as bamboo, soy and sugar cane. In a nutshell, debarked wood is dissolved in chemicals, washed, bleached and dried. The result is a high purity pulp solution. The solution is then spun into fibres that can be made into threads. At this stage, chemicals are used again to create the solution referred to as “viscose”.

Due diligence
Is a process that involves the examination, auditing or reviewing of processes, documentation and standards, to assess the risk and compliance of another company before entering into a business relationship with them.

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An ecosystem is a community of living and nonliving things interacting together as a unit, including plants, animals, microorganisms, soil, water, air, and other environmental factors. It involves complex relationships and the cycling of energy and nutrients, and can vary in size and complexity.

Elemental Chlorine Free (ECP)
Is a technique that uses chlorine dioxide for the bleaching of wood pulp. This method can be used on paper and wood-based fibres. It does not use elemental chlorine gas during the bleaching process and prevents the formation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, carcinogens.

The production and discharge of something. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are largely by-products of energy production and use and account for the largest share of greenhouse gases.

Emissions intensity
The average amount of emissions generated per FTE (full time employee) in the company. This is a helpful way to measure our impact and benchmark our results as our company and number of employees evolves in the years ahead.

Endangered forests
Are unique, intact, or ecologically critical forests found in ecosystems around the world.
According to Canopy, some of the ancient and endangered forests of the world are The Canadian Boreal Forest, The Coastal Temperate rainforests, Indonesian rainforests, The Taiga, Democratic Republic of the Congo rainforest and The Amazon. Human settlement and logging are having negative impacts on endangered forests and animals. Forests are required to maintain biodiversity and climate stability.

End of life
Is a term used, at which a product comes to the end of its intended life. The responsible management of a product’s end-of-life is a core component of product stewardship.

Efficient energy use is the process of reducing the amount of energy required to obtain the same result for products and services.

The natural world, as a whole or in a particular geographical area, especially as affected by human activity. It is the circumstances, objects, or conditions by which one is surrounded. The sum of all the living and nonliving things and their effects that influence human life.

Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI)
Is a leading alliance of companies, trade unions and NGOs that promotes respect for workers’ rights around the globe.

Excessive overtime
When an employee is asked or forced to work additional hours and that overtime is considered to be unreasonable having a negative impact on the employee. Excessive overtime can lead to unsafe working conditions, and lower mental and physical wellbeing for employees. There are usually laws or contracts in place, which stipulate standard working hours and overtime hours, but these are not always upheld in the fashion industry. If these overtime hours are exceeded this is considered excessive.

Extrusion spinning or melt spinning is a spinning technique where polymer is extruded by a spinneret. Usually, the polymer is fed into the spinning machine in pellet / chip form, melted and then pressed through

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Fabric Finishing
The process of finishing the woven or knitted fabric. This includes preparation for dyeing, printing, washing, drying and setting (which usually includes processes such as singeing, sizing, desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerising).

Fabric Production
Weaving or knitting of yarn into fabric.

Fabric Supplier
Is the business that trades with the fabric mills and sells and exports to buyers like wholesalers, manufacturers and retailers. We usually work directly with them.

Fairtrade Organisation
Refers to all or any part of the activities of FLO eV, FLO-CERT, Fairtrade producer networks, national Fairtrade organisations and Fairtrade marketing organisations. Fairtrade is used to denote the product certification system operated by Fairtrade International (FLO).

Fair Wear foundation
Fair Wear Foundation is a European multi-stakeholder initiative working to improve workplace conditions in the garment and textile industry.

Factory Partners
The companies that we work with that employ or contract out to the people who complete the CMT processes of our products.

Feather and Down
The down of the bird is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers.

A chemical or natural substance added to soil or land to increase its fertility.

A thread or filament from which a vegetable tissue, mineral substance, or textile is formed.

Fibre blends
Fibre blends are those fabrics in which two or more textile fibres are used. For example, our ‘Firebird crepe’ (which is 80% acetate 20% polyester) is a blend of fibres.

Fibre to fibre recycling
Refers to the recycling of pre-consumer or post-consumer textiles into new textiles, where the outcome of the recycling process would be a fibre that is of the same quality and value as the original fibre.

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Is an international, non-governmental organisation dedicated to promoting responsible management of the world’s forests. FSC certify forests to ensure their environments are responsibly managed and meet the highest environmental and social standards. It enables businesses and consumers to choose wood, paper and other forest products made with materials that support responsible forestry.

Formaldehyde resin products can be used in textile production including printing inks, dyes and finishing products. These formaldehyde-based materials help bind dyes and pigments to fabrics, preventing colours from running. Clothing finished with formaldehyde may also be marketed as wrinkle-resistant and stain-resistant. This chemical is a carcinogen, and has been known to cause skin irritation, and even cause headaches or a sore throat. For this reason, this chemical is included in our Restricted Substance List.

Fossil fuels
Is a generic term for non-renewable energy sources such as coal, coal products, natural gas, derived gas, crude oil, petroleum products and non-renewable wastes. These fuels originate from plants and animals that existed millions of years ago. They can be also made by industrial processes from other fossil fuels, for example in the oil refinery, crude oil is transformed into motor gasoline. Fossil fuels are carbon-based and their combustion results in the release of carbon into the Earth's atmosphere. It is estimated that roughly 65% of all man made CO2 and green-house gas emissions originate from fossil fuels combustion.

Full time equivalent employees for a certain period.

Fully fashioned knitwear
Yarn is knitted into a complete garment by Industrial Automatic Knitting Machines or by hand knitting. There are two methods of construction; knitting all of the individual pieces to shape without requiring to cut the fabric e.g front, back and sleeves, which are then linked together using a chain stitch, or knitting a whole garment in one complete piece on tubular knitting machines. Both methods of construction limit the use of excess materials to use exactly what is required for the specific garment. This is unlike traditional methods of construction where fabric is cut into pieces and then sewn together e.g front, back and sleeves, resulting in fabric scraps which can be difficult to reuse.

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Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)
Is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. This includes plants, animals and microorganisms.

Woven or knitted fabric that is unfinished and hasn't been bleached, dyed or printed.

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Health & Safety (Occupational)
As defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) "occupational health deals with all aspects of health and safety in the workplace and has a strong focus on primary prevention of hazards. Health has been defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” All workers should be able to perform their occupation without the fear of being hurt or exposed to any high risk situations, or unsafe circumstances. Workers should be given appropriate personal protective equipment to protect them from any hazardous machinery or substances, and employers should have systems in place to identify risks and hazards before any circumstances should arise.

Heavy metals
Are defined as any metallic element that has a relatively high density on the atomic scale and which negatively affects people's health. They are sometimes used in fabric dyestuffs and finishings. This includes antimony, cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and chromium VI. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. Small amounts of these elements are common in our environment and diet and are actually necessary for good health. However, with high exposure it can be harmful to humans long term health.

Home compost
Home compost is a resourceful way to recycle the food scraps and garden waste generated at home into a new resource- compost. The method used at home is in a bucket or large plastic bin which is placed in the garden or on soil ground. The bin is filled with a ratio of organic/ natural matter - 40% green matter (such as grass clippings and food waste) and 60% brown matter (such as paper, wood chips or brown leaves). The materials then decompose by the nutrients and microorganisms in the materials placed in the compost. The end product is compost - a dark, crumbly, earthy-smelling material. This can be used in flower and vegetable gardens, used around trees and lawn, and can be added with potting mix soil for indoor plants. It has many great benefits for the soil by adding new nutrients!

Home compostable
Home compost methods are capable of composting food waste, tea bags, grass clippings, leaves and some packaging and materials depending on their material makeup and density. These materials can also be commercially composted, which uses a higher temperature to break down more dense materials faster- such as branches and plants. Some packaging that is labelled ‘compostable’ may only be commercially compostable (and therefore not home compostable) because of the material, inks and glues they use. Commercially compostable packaging needs a higher heat to biodegrade within a timely manner, and will not compost fully in a home compost.

Defined as a worker who undertakes work from their home.

Human rights
Basic rights and freedoms that belong to all human beings, regardless of race, sex, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status.

RUBY headquarters or head office

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Any resource used to create goods and services, for example, labour, materials, water, dyes etc.

International Labour Organisation (ILO)
The only tripartite U.N. agency, since 1919 the ILO brings together governments, employers and workers of 187 Member States, to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men.

In real life

ISO14001 Environmental Management System
An internationally agreed standard that sets out the requirements for an environmental management system. It helps organisations improve their environmental performance through more efficient use of resources and reduction of waste, identifying and mitigating their impacts and reducing risk.

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See ‘fully fashioned knitwear’ definition.

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Also known as a tip, dump, garbage or rubbish dump etc, is a site for disposal of waste materials into the land. Landfill’s are full of a variety of materials, which as they decompose release harmful gases and liquids into the atmosphere and soils if not managed correctly. The conditions of landfills are not optimal and waste (including organic and natural waste) can take a long time to break down.

Land management
Land management practices are the way the land is managed for a specific end use. Responsible land management ensures that the land and soil is protected and preserved from foreign entities, including waterways and rivers. Some examples of responsible land management include; not overgrazing farm land, not moving stock in wet conditions, not clearing forestry for agriculture, riparian planting etc.

Refer to ‘heavy metals’ for overview. Lead can be found in natural fibres, such as cotton, flax and hemp, which can absorb it from the soil. It can be used in dyestuffs for finishing textiles. It becomes problematic when our bodies have to deal with large amounts, for example through drinking, eating, breathing and through skin absorption. If lead is not disposed of correctly this can negatively impact the environment. High levels of lead can affect the human brain and cognitive development, as well as the reproductive system. Lead is classified as a carcinogen. For these reasons, this metal is included in our Restricted Substance List.

A Polynesian garland of flowers.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Also known as Life Cycle Analysis is a tool for the systematic evaluation of the environmental aspects of a product or service system through all stages of its life cycle. The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), a world-wide federation of national standards bodies, has standardised this framework within the series ISO 14040 on LCA.

Living wage
Not to be confused with the legally set minimum wage. A living wage is defined as the remuneration that meets the basic needs of employees for a decent standard of living. Elements include nutritious food, housing, healthcare, clothing, transportation, energy, water, childcare, education, and to provide some discretionary income. Each country, and sometimes region, has their own standard of what a ‘living wage’ should be set at, currently in New Zealand the current living wage is $23.65 until August 2023, whereas the estimated living wage in China is ¥4,707 per month (approx $1,093 NZD per month).

Relating to a particular area or one's neighbourhood, for example our made in Aotearoa clothing is made locally in Auckland.

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The people who complete the CMT processes (for example cutting, sewing and adding trims).

Marker making
The process of determining the most efficient layout of pattern pieces for a style, fabric and distribution of sizes. Markers are then used for cutting out bulk production clothing.

The matter from which a thing is or can be made. We classify a material as the raw ingredient, yarn, fabric, trims etc.

Mechanical recycling process
The processing of shredding used or unwearable textiles into secondary raw materials or products without significantly changing the chemical structure of the material. The shredded fibres can then be spun and woven or knitted into new fabrics, or used as stuffing for other products such as mattresses and pillows.

Is a textile finishing treatment for cellulose fabric and yarn, mainly cotton and flax, which improves dye uptake and tear strength, reduces fabric shrinkage, and imparts a silk-like lustre.

Refer to ‘heavy metals’ for overview. Mercury can be used in dyestuffs for finishing textiles. It is easily absorbed through the skin or from the inhalation of dust which contains residues, and can cause harmful effects to the nervous, digestive and immune system. For these reasons, this metal is included in our Restricted Substance List.

When washing, fabrics and clothing sheds tiny fragments known as microfibres. This is most concerning in synthetic fabrics, as they do not biodegrade, and have now ended up being the most prevalent type of microplastic (plastic pieces less than 5 mm in diameter) found in the environment. Microfibers are too small to be filtered out by waste treatment plants, so they end up in our waterways and oceans, where they wreak havoc on marine animals and the environment. Plastic fibres are now showing up in fish and shellfish sold in California and Indonesia for human consumption.

Migrant workers
A person who moves to another country or area in order to find employment, in particular seasonal or temporary work.

Minimum wage
The lowest wage permitted by law or by a special agreement.

Mindful Fashion New Zealand (MFNZ)
MFNZ was founded by Emily Miller-Sharma and Kate Sylvester in 2019. Mindful Fashion is a collective of leading New Zealand designers, textile and trim suppliers, and manufacturers who believe in a future for the New Zealand clothing and textile industry that is inclusive, sustainable and successful. Supporting long term sustainable success for members and the wider industry through advocacy, sustainable business resources and facilitating collaborative solutions.

Monocropping is the practice of growing one single type of crop on the same plot of land, year after year. This practice depletes the soil of nutrients (making the soil less productive over time), reduces organic matter in soil and can cause significant erosion.

Modern slavery
Modern Slavery is an umbrella term that covers all forms of exploitative labour practices, including slavery, forced labour, debt bondage, forced & early marriage, child slavery, slavery and slavery-like practices, and human trafficking. Unfortunately, the fashion industry has become the second-largest sector, after technology, to be linked to modern slavery practices. Forced labour is one of the biggest risks in cotton farming.

A substance that helps fix a dye to a material.

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Natural fibres
Natural fibres are the fibres that are obtained from plants, animals or mineral sources. Some examples are cotton, silk, wool etc. Plant fibres are cellulose fibres and Animal fibres are protein fibres.

A non-profit organisation that operates independently of any government, typically one whose purpose is to address a social or political issue.

Refer to ‘heavy metals’ for overview. Pure nickel is a hard, silvery-white metal used to make stainless steel and other metal alloys. Skin irritation is the most common effect seen in people who are sensitive to nickel. Workers may be harmed from high exposure to nickel and it has been linked to health issues in the lungs, stomach and kidneys. For these reasons, this metal is included in our Restricted Substance List.

A non-renewable resource is a resource that cannot be replaced after it is used. Minerals and many fuels are non-renewable resources. Most of the natural resources that we exploit for energy and minerals are nonrenewable. Right now, we're using up petroleum much faster than it can be produced in nature. Some predictions indicate we could reach peak oil (maximum extraction) by 2030 if we keep going at the same rate we are now.

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A country overseas. We refer to something as made offshore, for example all of our knitwear and denim is made offshore due to specialised equipment and skills.

1. Relating to or derived from living matter.
2. Food or farming methods produced or involving production without the use of chemical fertilisers, pesticides, or other artificial chemicals.

Organic Silk
For organic silk, the process is similar to conventional silk, except that the silkworms are fed with mulberry tree leaves from organic agriculture. The trees are not treated with fungicides, insecticides or genetic sprays; it also significantly reduces water pollution that can result from conventional silk production practices. Organic silk is usually finished, dyed and printed in certified organic facilities, meaning they are audited against standards that ensure no harmful chemicals are used in the manufacturing of fabrics and that facilities meet strict social and environmental criteria.

The production of more of a product, commodity, or substance than is wanted or needed. For example, fast fashion overproduction can have negative impacts on the environment due to the use of inputs required for production and disposal of clothing.

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A manual pattern is made on paper in 2 dimensional format, usually containing many pattern pieces for 1 garment. These templates are used to cut out fabric and construct / sew into a garment or accessory which becomes 3 dimensional. In the development stages at RUBY, we usually make 4-5 patterns and samples. Throughout this process changes are being made to ensure the best outcome for bulk production.

Pattern Maker
Is a technically skilled person who is responsible for making and working with patterns during the development and manufacturing stages. Pattern making may be done manually (called drafting) using paper and pencil, or it may be done using computer aided software (CAD). The pattern maker works closely with the designer, sample cutter and sample machinist to bring a 2D image to life and ensure the fit, fabric and construction meet quality standards. Part of this development process is also adapting patterns to reduce fabric yield and wastage. A CAD pattern maker may be responsible for size grading and making lay plans and bulk markers for manufacturing.

Polybutyrate Adipate Terephthalate (PBAT)
Is a polymer that breaks down completely when composted leaving no toxic residues behind. It is commonly used as a material in biodegradable and compostable packaging, for example our courier mailer bags and shipping bags. Unfortunately PBAT isn't fully renewable because it is partly derived from petrochemicals. While it’s currently the best solution right now to reduce plastic waste, significant research is going into a more plant-based composition for PBAT that'll make it more renewable.

Peace Silk
While conventional and organic silk manufacturing methods involve boiling the cocoons while the silkworm is still inside, Peace silk allows the completion of the metamorphosis of the silkworm to the butterfly, ensuring no silkworms are harmed in the production of silk. This particular method can slow production. It is done in accordance with non-violence/ cruelty free principles and manufactured under the most stringent social and natural conditions. Once the butterflies have left their cocoons, the cocoons are processed without the use of harmful chemicals, and the fibres are spun using solar-powered machinery. Organic peace silk is a cruelty-free alternative to conventional silk.

Pesticides kill, repel, or control forms of animal and plant life considered to damage or be a nuisance in agriculture and domestic life. Herbicides destroy or control weeds and other unwanted vegetation. Conventional cotton is often grown using pesticides which can linger in the finished cotton product. Pesticides are known to contain toxins, and have been linked to major health concerns in humans including respiratory problems and even cancer.

PolyEthylene Terephthalate (PET)
Is the chemical name for polyester or plastic. It is used to make bottles for a large portion of soft drinks, fruit juices, dilutable drinks and bottled water. PET is the most recyclable plastic in the world and is usually the plastic that is recycled into polyester fibres.

Petroleum, also called crude oil, is a fossil fuel. Like coal and natural gas, petroleum was formed over millions of years from the remains of ancient marine organisms, such as plants, algae, and bacteria. It is a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons which is present in suitable rock strata and can be extracted and refined to produce fuels including petrol, paraffin, and diesel oil. Synthetic fabrics like polyester, nylon and acrylic are petroleum-based and chemically treated.

Per- and Polyfluorinated Substances (PFAS) and Perfluorochemicals (PFCS)
Clothing that is stain or water-resistant is typically made using a group of chemicals called PFAS or PFCS. They are often referred to as “forever chemicals” because of their reluctance to break down. Consistent, high exposure to these chemicals can cause a variety of health issues, and is even linked to infertility and certain types of cancer. Although it is unlikely that high exposure will occur while wearing clothing finished with PFAS and PFCS, it is still important to avoid these. For these reasons, these chemicals are included in our Restricted Substance List.

A group of chemicals used to make plastics more durable. They are frequently used in activewear and sportswear as well as decorative printing in clothes, such as logos or accessories. Phthalates have been linked to health issues such as damaging the liver, kidneys, lungs, and reproductive system. For these reasons, these chemicals are included in our Restricted Substance List.

Polylactic acid (PLA)
Is a bio-sourced, non-toxic plastic made from plant extracts like sugarcane and corn. This means it’s made of renewable resources. PLA can be edible, compostable and biodegradable, meaning it can completely break down in the right environment. It is commonly used as a material in compostable packaging, for example our RUBY courier mailers and shipping bags.

Noun: "POI" is the Maori word for "ball" on a cord, which are used in performing art. Traditionally the poi was most commonly made from harakeke (New Zealand flax, Phormium tenax) and raupō (Typha orientalis), but today is made of modern everyday materials.

A set of ideas or a plan of what to do in particular situations, that has been agreed to officially by a group of people, a business organisation, a government, or a political party.

Polyacetal resin
Acetal is a synthetic plastic that is often used when injection moulding or extruding.

Polymerisation is the process in which monomers (single molecules) are linked together through a chemical reaction to form long chains. These polymer chains are either natural or synthetic, and the most commonly found synthetic polymers in textiles are polyester and nylon.

Post-consumer waste
Comes from used or discarded materials from the end of the consumer life cycle. For example, post-consumer waste may be materials like end of life clothing, used cardboard boxes, paper, and packaging (plastic bottles, plastic containers and cans).

Pre-consumer waste
Is usually leftover materials (waste) from production that have not yet made it to the consumer.
Think timber or fabric off-cuts and overstock raw materials, basically anything that doesn't make it to the consumer that is brought back into the manufacturing process to be given a new life.

Polyurethane (PU) is a composite material made of: (1) one or more layers of polymer resins joined by urethane links; and (2) a woven or non-woven textile backing such as polyester, cotton, nylon, or ground leather.

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Rapidly renewable
Means products that are made from plant resources that are harvested within a ten-year cycle or shorter, including, but not limited to, bamboo, eucalyptus, wheat straw, sunflower hulls, cork oak, wheatboard, linoleum, and sorghum.

Raw material
The basic material from which a product is made. For example, the raw material used to make linen fabric is flax which is grown in a farm.

Raw material production
The creation or collection of the raw material used to make a fabric. For example on farms, forests, plantations, recycling plants, petroleum extraction and polymerisation. Raw material production can include the processing of the raw material (for example ginning cotton, carding wool, scutching flax or extruding polyester).

Material that would have otherwise been disposed of as waste or used for energy recovery, but has instead been collected and reclaimed as a material input, in lieu of new primary material, for a recycling process.

To convert one material (most commonly waste) into another reusable material.

Recycled Cotton
Is cotton that has been recycled, either through mechanical or chemical recycling processes, to form new cotton. Often the quality of recycled cotton can degrade through the recycling process, so it mixes with virgin cotton to maintain quality standards.

Recycled Silk
Is made from the silk cocoon remnants or by-products from the silk making process. These are often collected from mills that make Sari’s etc in India and are woven into new yarns and fabrics.

Recycled Wool
Due to its history, artisans have been recycling wool for many centuries. There are two pathways wool can be recycled- either through mechanical recycling into new wool fibres, or through felting the wool fibres into wool felt.

To make smaller or less in amount, degree, or size.

Regenerated/ Regenerative/ Regeneration
Able to or tending to regenerate - to regrow or be renewed or restored, especially after being damaged or lost. The act or process of regenerating is regeneration. For example turning fishing nets that have been discarded into new nylon yarns.

A piece of cloth that is left over after the rest has been used or sold.

Anything renewable can be replaced or replenished at a higher rate than consumed. Energy derived from natural resources like sunlight and wind are examples of renewable energy, as opposed to non-renewable energy resources like coal, oil and gas.

Repurpose/ Repurposed
Products or materials that have been adapted for another purpose. For example, our excess binding and off-cuts can be repurposed and used for knitting into garments.

Responsible manufacturing
Having policies in place that seek to ensure that goods and services are produced in a way that minimises both waste and pollution, and respects and upholds the rights of workers throughout the supply chain.

To use again or use more than once in the original form with no modification except repair. Garments can be reused by exchanging between people, through a thrift store, through rental, or through a take-back programme.

Restore (something damaged, faulty, or worn) to a good condition. For example, if a seam has ripped open it can be repaired by re-sewing the seam closed.

Risk Assessment
A systematic process of evaluating the potential risks that may be involved in a projected activity or undertaking, by assessing the certifications, actions and procedures of certain organisations, and determining their level of risk to the business.

A Rubette is someone who: seeks an abundance of joy, has an eagerness to learn, works hard and knows how to party.

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Sample Cutter
The role of a person who works with fabric and a pattern to cut out a sample before it is sewn into a garment or accessory.

Sample Machinist
The role of a person who sews a sample during the development process. This person uses the cut pieces of fabric, trims and a spec sheet for instruction to sew into a garment form called a sample.

Samples / Sampling
The development of a garment or sample collection from concept to a piece that is ready to be put into bulk production. For each style that we put into store, anywhere between 2 to 5 samples may be made to ensure we get the fit and vibe just right.

Scope 1, 2 & Scope 3
When referring to carbon emissions and carbon measuring, these are classified into 3 categories:
Scope 1: covers direct emissions from company owned or controlled sources e.g. stationery fuel and transport fuel consumption (company vehicle fuel).
Scope 2: covers indirect emissions from the purchase and use of energy e.g. electricity and gas.
Scope 3: covers indirect emissions from the operations of the company e.g. upstream freight (business travel, accommodation, employee commuting, product freight), downstream freight (freight to customers & stores), business waste, purchased goods & services.

Is the term for ‘cleaning’ fibres prior to mordanting (dye fixatives) and dyeing, but this does not mean ‘cleaned’ in a washing machine. If the fibre is not clean, the mordant and dyes will not adhere well to the fibre. Fabrics sold as greige require a thorough scour.

Is a step in the processing of cotton or the dressing of flax or hemp in preparation for spinning. The scutching process separates the impurities from the raw material, such as the seeds from raw cotton or the straw and woody stem from flax fibres. This is a mechanical process.

Sea freight
When goods are sent via shipping vessel (boat) across the sea from a location to the destination. For example, we use sea freight to send bulk fabric from Japan to our New Zealand cutter, who then cuts the fabric into bulk garments.

A line where two pieces of fabric are sewn together in a garment or other article.

Product that has failed factory inspection and not met Grade A standards. There may be a small fault or defect marked. For example, Qualspec, Sedex Members Ethical Trade Audit (SMETA), WRAP (worldwide responsible accredited production), Intertek.

Social responsibility / Social standards
Refers to an individual or business taking accountability and taking actions that will benefit society. In businesses this is often referred to as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and will often outline that organisations actions and goals on how they plan to ensure the safety and wellbeing of people and the environment.

Soft plastics
Are flexible plastics that can be scrunched into a ball, unlike 'rigid' plastics such as bottles and containers, which are moulded and hold their shape. They usually consist of one of three types of plastics – Low-density Polyethene (LDPE), High-density Polyethene (HDPE) or Polypropylene (PP). Some examples of soft plastics are plastic: carry bags, courier mailers, chip/biscuit/muesli bar packets, bread bags, frozen food bags, toilet paper packaging and bubble wrap. In New Zealand soft plastic recycling is possible through The Soft Plastic Recycling Scheme which is an initiative to help reduce the amount of waste going into landfill while creating valuable new products and commodities.

Soy-based inks
Are made from soybeans. Traditional inks are petroleum-based, and therefore are derived from fossil fuels which are nonrenewable.

Is the process of drawing out fibres from a mass of material and twisting them together to form a continuous thread or yarn onto a bobbin.

Is a business arrangement in which a company contracts with another company to provide goods or services that are necessary to the first company's operation. The term “subcontracting” can also refer to the act of contracting out such work.

These are the factories that may be involved in the making or part of the making of our products. Sometimes we work with Factory Partners who subcontract out work to other factories such as garment factories, washing mills and embroidery or print factories. We have a relationship with the Factory Partner and they have a relationship with the sub-factory. However, we have full visibility of these sub-factories including formal documentation that we require.

A person or business that provides a product or service to another entity. Tier 1 suppliers: These are direct suppliers of the final product. Tier 2 suppliers: These are suppliers or subcontractors for tier 1 suppliers. Tier 3 suppliers: These are suppliers or subcontractors for tier 2 suppliers.

Supply chain
Refers to the chain of producers, people and locations a product takes from its journey from raw material to finished product. This will include the sourcing of the raw materials, the factories who make and dye the fabrics, the factories who turn those fabrics into garments; and the distribution network by which the clothes are delivered to consumers.

Supply chain visibility
Is the ability to track, and have visibility of individual components, and final products as they travel from supplier to manufacturer to consumer. We don't always have direct relationships with every organisation in the supply chain (for example raw material is the most difficult to trace back), but we may know the name and location of the organisation.

Sustainable / Sustainability
Able to continue, or ‘sustain’ over a period of time. The United Nations Brundtland Commission defined sustainability as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Most commonly, sustainability is a holistic term used to cover three dimensions/ pillars, which can include: environmental, economic, and social. Sustainability is often focused on countering major environmental problems, such as climate change, loss of biodiversity, loss of ecosystem services, land degradation, and air and water pollution, but it also covers the wellbeing and safety of people, communities and society.

Synthetic fibres
A man-made textile fibre produced entirely from chemical substances. For example, polyester and nylon are derived from petroleum based chemicals.

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Textile Exchange
A global non- profit organisation that drives positive action on climate change across the fashion, textile and apparel industry. Textile Exchange works with brands, retailers, manufacturers, and farmers. Textile Exchange have developed standards to authenticate sustainability claims from the raw material to the final product through auditing and certifications through third-party certification bodies. Some of these standards are: Global Recycled Standard (GRS), Recycled Claim Standard (RCS), Organic Content Standard (OCS), Responsible Wool Standard (RWS), Responsible Mohair Standard (RMS), Responsible Down Standard (RDS) and Responsible Alpaca Standard (RAS).

Toolbox for Change
RUBY’s tools and tactics that are used to create better outcomes for people and the planet.

Traceable/ Traceability
The ability to identify and trace a product through all stages of the supply chain. Traceability can be achieved through supply chain mapping, using a chain of custody certification, or with new technologies such as blockchain or Digital Product Passports.

To be open and honest. Supply chain transparency is when companies know where and how their goods are produced, based on reliable data, and then communicate that knowledge both to internal and external stakeholders, including customers.

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Upcycled / Upcycling
Also known as creative reuse, is the process of transforming something into something of greater value than the original. For example, adding an embroidery or print to an old t-shirt.

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Virgin materials
In the textile industry, virgin materials are materials straight from extraction from its natural form that have not been recycled or altered since their original development.

Vegan materials
Are materials that are made to look and feel like animal derived materials without the use of any animal products. Most often vegan materials are made from plant and agricultural materials, but can sometimes include synthetic materials like polyester and PVC. For example, some vegan leathers can be made with substitutes that mimic the look and feel of animal hides, such as pineapple leaves, cactus, apple, grape, cork, mushroom, coconut, recycled rubber and even paper. However, some of these natural plant and agricultural materials still need to be mixed with a % of synthetic material which helps to bond the material together and give strength and durability. There are some vegan materials that don’t require the use of synthetic inputs, such as vegan silk which can be made with substitute materials that mimic the look and feel of traditional silk, but without being made by a silkworm. Some of these alternative fibres include banana, cactus, pineapple and lotus fibres as well as newly developed man made spider fibres using sugar and yeast.

To make sure or demonstrate that something is true, accurate, or justified.

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Textile wastage is the material that is discarded throughout the production process. This wastage can be produced throughout each stage of production, from spinning, weaving, dyeing, finishing, and even after it's made. We often refer to ‘wastage’ in the pattern making and lay stage as the fabric that is leftover after cutting out the garments- also known as off-cuts.

Wet processing
Wet-Processing is the processing stage at which a textile is treated with colourants and/or chemicals. This usually includes sizing, desizing, pretreatment and then dyeing, printing, finishing, washing, etc.

Weaving is the craft of lacing fibres together to make fabric. Weaving often involves using a loom to hold the thread or yarn, although it can also be done by hand. Weaving has two distinct sets of yarns called the warp and weft which are interlaced with each other at right angles to form a fabric. The warp threads run length-ways on the piece of cloth, while the weft runs horizontally.

Worm farms
A form of home composting which involves the use of worms to break down food waste such as vegetable and fruit scraps, egg shells, tea leaves etc.

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A textile yarn is spun from the raw material. It is a continuous strand of staple or filament fibre arranged in a form suitable for weaving, knitting, or any other form of fabric assembly.

Yarn Production
The process of turning raw materials into yarn which is then made into fabrics. This involves spinning the processed raw material into strands of yarn.

Is the amount of fabric required to make 1 garment. This measurement is calculated by laying the pattern pieces for 1 size onto the fabric to work out the length required. An average yield is usually taken from the middle size of the size break that is being produced.

The information listed above is based on data from April 2023


The work and care we put into our product so that each piece is loved for a long time and by many.


We believe in strengthening & educating our local community whether that be those in our team, Rubettes that frequent our stores or those we haven’t met yet.

Carbon Curious

Insights into our carbon footprint and the plan to reduce our emissions.




Carbon Curious